Sunday, April 5, 2015

Foundations of Marital and Family Therapy

1940

Theodore LidzStudy of families of schizophrenics
Introduced concepts of
Schism= division of family into two antagonistic and competing groups.
Skew= one partner in marriage dominates the family as a result of serious personality disorder in one of the partners.


1950

Nathan AckermanThe Psychodynamics of Family Life
Began treating client mental disorders through family process dynamics.

Gregory BatesonFormulated controversial yet influential theory of dysfunctional communication called the double-bind.
Two seemingly contradictory messages may exist on different levels and lead to confusion or schizophrenic behavior on the part of the individuals receiving those messages.

Milton EricksonEstablished Brief Therapy

Carl WhitakerRisked violating the conventions of traditional psychotherapy
Published work in dual therapy or conjoint couple therapy.

Murray BowenBegan holding therapy sessions with all family members present as part of a research project on schizophrenics.
Elaborated theory on the influence of previous generations on mental health of families.
Emotional Reactivity
Found that when troubled families were brought together they had difficulty maintaining their identities
Described this as an undifferentiated family ego mass
Worked to help them establish appropriate relationship boundaries and avoid projecting or triangulating.


1960s
Jay HayleyBegan to formulate Strategic Family Therapy.
Emphasis on gaining and maintaining power during treatment.
Edited Family Process, first journal in field of family therapy.

Salvador MinuchinUsed his own form of family therapy with urban slum families
Reduced recidivism rate for delinquents in school.
Training local members of the black community as paraprofessional family therapists.
Cultural differences often makes it difficult for white middle class therapists to relate successfully to urban black and Hispanics.

Virginia SatirSocial work background
Gained prominence in Mental Research Institute
Unique in being only woman pioneer of family therapy.
Focused on importance of self esteem, compassion, and congruent expression of feelings.

John BellStarted using group therapy as a basis for working with families
Structural program of treatment that conceptualized family members as strangers.


1970s
R.D. LaingCoined the term mystification
Describes how some families mask what is going on between family members by giving conflict and contradictory explanations of events.

Rachel Hare-MustinFeminist Approach to Family Therapy
Goal of working with a families
Facilitate the growth of a strong woman who have enhanced control over resources
Increase the ability of women to work together politically to make societal changes.


1980s
Women came to forefront
Monica McGoldrick
Carolyn Attneave
Peggy Papp
Peggy Penn
Cloe Madanes
Fromma Walsh
Betty Carter

1990s

Steve deShazer
Narrative theory

Bill OHanlonSolution Focused