Sunday, February 1, 2015

Risk factors and relational patterns of endangerment

Risk factors for Victimization
o Being female
o Young age
o Being a minority
o Drug and alcohol use
o High-risk sexual behavior
o Exposure to victimization as a child
o Low education level
o Unemployment
o Low SES
o Little or no support system
o Low self esteem
o Adolescence or developmental transition period
o Having a verbally abusive, jealous, or possessive partner
o Couples with income, educational, or job status disparities
o Dominance and control of the relationship by the male
o Weak community sanctions against victimization (e.g., police unwilling to intervene)
o Traditional gender norms (e.g., women should stay at home and not enter workforce, should be submissive)


Risk Factors for Perpetration

o Low self-esteem
o Low income
o Low academic achievement
o History of delinquency in youth
o Drug and alcohol use and abuse
o Depression or other psychological diagnosis
o Anger management issues
o Axis II disorders
o Past history of abuse
o Social isolation
o Unemployment
o Emotional dependence or codependence
o Belief in strict gender roles
o Abuse of power and control
o Past history of victimization
o Marital conflict-fights, tension, and other struggles
o Marital instability-divorces and separations
o Unhealthy family environment or blurred boundaries